Data: The facts or evidence used to prove the argument Claim: The statement being argued (a thesis) Warrants: The general, hypothetical (and often implicit) logical statements that serve as bridges between the claim and the data. Qualifiers: Statements that limit the strength of the argument or statements that propose the conditions under Evidence, counter-evidence. In order to present the actual argument or ideas of the thesis/introductory paragraph, one needs evidence, and in most courses, this takes the form of textual evidence. In some ways, one is like a lawyer who presents a case in a criminal proceeding.
A robust understanding of claims and evidence is fundamental to any genre of quality writing. Even something as commonplace as a thoughtfully written birthday card will contain the interaction of claim and evidence. For example: Claim: Lisa has grown and accomplished a lot this year. Evidence: Lisa graduated from college this spring with a 4.0 GPA.